Flora And Fauna
Mercury Threatens Canada’s Loons
Posted December 14, 2013
From Bird Studies Canada
12 December 2013 – Toxic mercury escapes to the atmosphere anytime fossil fuels are burned. Once in lakes, it travels up the food chain to fish and loons. Loons, which are high on the chain, produce fewer chicks when they become burdened with the toxin.
Researchers at Queen’s University and Environment Canada recently determined the proportion of 1900 water bodies across Canada where mercury was high enough to cause problems for breeding loons. Their study was published in Environmental Science & Technology<http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es403534q>.
Fish had enough mercury to lower loon productivity at an alarming 10-36% of lakes. The researchers found the risk to loons was highest in acidic lakes in eastern Canada, because acid enhances uptake of mercury into the food chain.
For the complete Bird Studies Canada's report from the Canadian Lakes Loon Survey, see http://www.birdscanada.org/volunteer/clls/resources/CLLSsummary.pdf
Wildlife On The French River
Dave Minden, Revised Nov. 20, 2011
When people hear the word “wildlife”, the first thing that comes to mind is the group of animals that we call mammals. But the word “wildlife” literally means “life” that is “wild” and includes all living things from microscopic Algae and Protozoa to Fungi and Plants, as well as Animals. These 5 major groups: Algae, Protozoa, Fungi, Plants, and Animals are the five Kingdoms of all living things.
There are two main groups of animals: vertebrates (with backbones and internal skeletons) and invertebrates (without internal skeletons – the thousands of species of insects, crustaceans, etc.)
Classification of Living Things.pdf
The following sections on the five classes of vertebrates (mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles) list some of the wildlife found on the Upper French River region. The list is not complete. If you observe a species of wildlife that is not listed, please let us know and we will add it to the list. Species of particular interest have additional descriptive commentary. Information about wildlife species is widely available using Internet search tools.
Mammals Of The French River Region
Thanks to Valarie Duquette (Dokis FN) and Chuck Miller (Superintendent - French River Provincial Park) for their advice. See also Kershaw, Maureen and Hawes, Kyle. Natural Science Inventory of Mashkinonge Provincial Park, 1999.
For details on these mammals, you can “Google” search on the web.
An excellent book is Elder, Tamara, Mammals of Ontario. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, 2005.
** Note: The following sections include many photos that were lost when the web site was switched from its temporary site to ufrca.com. We will restore these photos. Watch for updates.
Order Insectivora – Insect eaters - Shrews and Moles
Masked shrew (Sorex cinerus)
Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)
Star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata
Order ChIroptera – Bats
Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)
Over the years bats have earned an unfair reputation, mainly due to Hollywood movies. However, what some cottagers may not realize is that bats play a very important role at the cottage: every night they eat a lot of insects including mosquitoes. With the emergence of West Nile virus, bats are seen as a natural partner in mosquito population control.
The main bat species found in Ontario are the Little Brown Bat and the Big Brown Bat. Breeding usually occurs in late summer and the female stores sperm until the following April. The female then gives birth 60 to 90 days later. There are usually one or two young who are usually under parental care during June and July. No nest is required, as the young are able to fly and obtain their own food in just three weeks.
Hibernation occurs during the winter months from November to March. The Big Brown Bat is the most likely species to hibernate in buildings such as houses and barns. Little Brown Bats prefer caves or mines to hibernate in for the winter. Bats may select attics for nursery colonies. Bats can squeeze through very tiny spaces as small as 6 mm to access roosting areas. When there are many bats in a colony, they may pose a problem with odour and droppings. This may be a health risk if it has reached a stage where it is noticeable. During periods of extreme cold, bats will often squeeze through the vapour barrier and end up inside a home. If this happens, these bats cannot be immediately released outside, as they will freeze to death.
Bats are nocturnal animals. They feed at night and are most active during the second and third hours after sunset. During the day they roost in trees and buildings.
Bats may be carriers of rabies. Bats observed flying during the day or crawling about on the ground should be avoided, as they are most likely sick or injured. As with any animal, if you must handle it, always wear gloves and if possible use forceps or tongs to pick it up. Place it in a sealed container with air holes. If it has come into contact with humans or pets, contact your local health unit for advice if it's alive, or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency if it is dead. Bat bites are not always noticeable. If a bat is found in a bedroom where a person has been sleeping, contact your local health unit immediately for advice, and contact a local wildlife control agent to capture the animal.
Visit the Ministry of Natural Resources website for more information on bats and rabies.
Order Lagomorpha – Rabbits and hares
Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus)
Order Rodentia (Gnawing animals – rodents)
Eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus)
Least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus)
Woodchuck (groundhog) (Marmota monax)
Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
Northern flying squirrel (Glaucomis sabrinus)
Beaver (Castor canadensis)
Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)
Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)
Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)
Southern Red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi)
Southern bog lemming (Synaptomys cooperi)
Meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius)
Woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis)
Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)
Order Carnivora – Meat eatersFamily Canidae (dog family)
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)
Coyote (Canis latrans)
Gray wolf (Canis lupus)– usually called “timberwolf”
Red wolf (Canis rufus)- probably the Algonquin Park wolf
Every year, some cottagers either see black bears or have them visit their property. Here are some “bear facts” about bears and ways to lessen the frequency of bear/human encounters.
General Facts about black bears:
- Black bears are generally timid and avoid encounters with people, but they can come into conflict with people especially when natural foods are scarce.
- Black bears are large, powerful animals. Adult males can weigh 120 - 280 kg (250 - 600 lbs.). Adult females can weigh 45 - 180 kg (100 - 400 lbs.). Black bears are not normally aggressive towards humans, however, on extremely rare occasions, bears can be dangerous.
- There are about 75,000 to 100,000 black bears in Ontario.
- Black bears are active from mid-April to late fall in most parts of the province.
- Most black bears enter their dens by mid-October in the north and by early November in central Ontario. However, bears will stay out of their dens longer when fall foods are abundant.
- Black bear cubs are generally born in January while their mothers are in their dens. Cubs stay with their mothers for approximately 16-18 months following their birth.
- Between early July and late September bears typically double their body weight as they prepare for winter hibernation. Black bears do not eat or drink while in their winter dens.
- Black bears are omnivorous (they feed on both plants and animals).
- Black bears feed mainly on summer and fall berry crops such as raspberries, blueberries and mountain ash, as well as acorns and beechnuts in the fall.
- Natural foods vary greatly in abundance from year to year. Bears may look for other food sources more actively in the spring if the previous year's food supply was poor and they are in poor condition. They may also look for alternate food sources in late summer and fall if the current year's food supply is poor. Consequently, food or garbage around homes, cottages and campsites will become attractive to bears.
For information on how bears become nuisance bears and how to prevent problems, and what to do during a bear encountersee www.bears.mnr.gov.on.ca
Raccoon (Procyon lotor)
Family Mustelidae (Weasel family – scent glands)
Marten (Martes americana)
Fisher (Martes pennanti)
Ermine – short-tailed weasel (Mustela erminea)
Mink (Mustela vison)
Striped skunk (Mephista mephitis)
River otter (Lutra canadensis)
Family Felidae (cat family)
Lynx (Felis lynx)
Bobcat (Felis rufus)
Cougar (Felis concolor)
Sightings of cougar are documented in various regions of Ontario, but with no firm evidence.
Order Artiodactyla – Hoofed Animals
White tail deer (Adocoileus virginianus)
Moose (Alces alces)
* Elk or wapiti (Cervus elaphus)
* Remnant of re-established herd in 1920s at Burwash Industrial Farm. Recent sighting near Trout Creek Ontario (October 2007). Range is expanding.
Human beings (Homo sapiens)
Watch out for these guys! Very dangerous!
Birds Of The French River Region
A Special Note About The Cormorant
Many are concerned about the impact of cormorants on fish stocks in Lake Nipissing and other lakes. While previously seen mainly on ocean coastlines and on the shores of the Great Lakes and Georgian Bay, there has been a large increase in the cormorant population over the last decade on inland lakes. Flocks of many hundreds of birds are now seen regularly on Lake Nipissing and the population is estimated at between one and two thousand. The population appears now to have stabilized. Sport fishers contend that the cormorants are eating the prey fish of walleye (pickerel) but the MNR contends that the impact of cormorants is minimal. The jury is still out on this. Cormorants are "quiet" diving birds and do not call like loons. But when they gather on a rock on a hot day to cool off by spreading their wings, you can hear them "murmuring" softly. They're probably discussing the large increase in human fishing in the area!
See Environment Canada: Cormorant website for the following information:
- Information about the species
- Information on the expansion of the species in Ontario
- Control Measures
- Cormorant decline in 1950s and 1970s and resurgence 1970-1990
- Concern - How much fish do cormorants eat?
- Competition with Sport Fish
Shore And Water Birds Of The French River Area
Posted July 10, 2013
For a list of bird sightings by Bonnie Witmer and others at Solid Comfort, Boreal_Bird_Checklist_copy-1.pdf.
* Denotes birds observed by the FRIENDS OF MASHKINONJE, (no photos below).
** Denotes birds shown in the collages below.
*** Denotes additional bird sightings from Solid Comfort
Common Loon **
Double-crested Cormorant **
Great Blue Heron **
Green Heron *
Canada Goose **
Wood Duck **
Pin-tailed Duck **
American Black Duck
Buffle Head Duck **
Am. Wigeon *
Northern Shoveler *
Blue-winged Teal *
Green-winged Teal *
Lesser Scaup *
Ringed-neck Duck *
Common Goldeneye **
Hooded Merganser *
Common Merganser **
Red-breasted Merganser ***
Ruddy Duck *
Bald Eagle **
Golden Eagle **
Sandhill Crane **
Spotted Sandpiper *
Least Sandpiper **
Ring-billed Gull *
Herring Gull **
Black-backed Gull **
Black Tern *
Common Tern **
Belted Kingfisher **
Land Birds Of The French River Area
Sharp-shined Hawk *
Broad-winged Hawk **
Red-tailed Hawk **
Marsh Hawk **
Barred Owl **
Common Nighthawk *
Sparrow Hawk **
Turkey Vulture **
Ruffed Grouse **
Am. Coot *
Common Moorhen *
Greater Yellowlegs *
Wilson’s Snipe *
Rock Pigeon **
Mourning Dove **
Black-billed Cuckoo *
Yellow-billed Cuckoo *
Ruby-throated Hummingbird **
Downy Woodpecker **
Hairy Woodpecker **
American Three-toed Woodpecker***
Pileated Woodpecker **
Eastern Wood-Pewee **
Alder Flycatcher *
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher *
Eastern Phoebe **
Great-crested Flycatcher *
Eastern Kingbird *
Philadelphia Vireo *
Blue Jay **
Am Crow **
Tree Swallow **
N.Rough-winged Swallow *
Bank Swallow *
Cliff Swallow *
Barn Swallow **
Black-capped Chickadee **
White-breasted Nuthatch **
Red-breasted Nuthatch **
Marsh Wren *
Winter Wren *
Hermit Thrush *
American Robin **
Gray Catbird *
Brown Thrasher *
Cedar Waxwing **
Nashville Warbler *
Yellow Warbler **
Chestnut-sided Warbler *
Pine Warbler *
Blackburnian Warbler *
Black and White Warbler***
Northern Waterthrush *
Common Yellowthroat *
Canada Warbler *
Savannah Sparrow *
Song Sparrow **
Swamp Sparrow *
White-crowned sparrow **
White-throated Sparrow **
Dark-eyed Junco *
Indigo Bunting *
Eastern Meadowlark *
Brewer’s Blackbird **
Brown-headed Cowbird *
Purple Finch *
Rose-breasted Grosbeak **
Evening Grosbeak *
Reptiles Of The French River Region
On the Upper French River there are several common species of snakes:
Eastern hognosed snake (a species at risk)
Note that the Massasauga Rattlesnake is found on the lower French River west of Highway 69 and is rarely seen east of the highway.
For information on identification of local snakes.
Turtles of the French River area
Turtles have a hard shell to protect themselves from enemies. The top part of the shell is called the 'carapace', and the lower part is called the 'plastron'. The carapace and plastron are solidly fastened (fused) on each side of the body in an area known as a 'bridge'. The carapace and plastron are covered with 'plates' or 'scutes' that give each species of turtle a unique colour and design. These plates or scutes are shed as the turtle grows and replaced with newer, larger plates.
Turtles, like all reptiles, are cold-blooded animals and can often be spotted sitting in open areas gathering heat from the sun. This behaviour is known as 'basking' and it allows the turtles to increase its body temperature. By increasing its body temperature the turtle can digest food more quickly. While basking, a turtle stretches out its legs, head and tail. This may help remove pests such as leeches which can attach themselves to turtles. Basking in the sun also reduces the growth of algae on the turtle’s shell. If too much algae grows on the shell, the shell can be damaged. In the summer, turtles are quite active and hunt regularly. This allows the turtle to maintain a good reserve body fat, which is needed to survive the winter when the turtle is inactive.
Snapping Turtles are carnivores (meat eaters), while other species such as the Painted Turtles are omnivores. Snapping turtles eat crayfish, dragonfly larvae, snails, leeches, frog, and fish.
The Painted Turtles, being omnivorous, feed on algae and duckweed plants, as well as aquatic insects, crayfish, tadpoles, and snails.
There are many species of turtles in Ontario. In order to help identify different species, turtles can be divided into groups according to size. Small species include the Stinkpot and the Spotted Turtle. Medium-sized turtles include the Painted Turtle and Map Turtle. Larger species include the Snapping Turtle, Blanding's Turtle and Wood Turtle.To learn more about turtles: http://www.torontozoo.com/adoptapond/turtles.asp
Amphibians Of The French River Region
Toads and Frogs
Bull frog Spring Peeper
Western Chorus Frog Pickerel Frog
For frog and toad identification, range, and songs go to http://www.torontozoo.com/adoptapond/frogs.asp
Salamanders and Newts
Northern Two-lined Salamander
Eastern Red-backed Salamander
Spotted Salamander (yellow)
Red Spotted Newt
Fish of the French River and Lake Nipissing
Flora (Plants and Fungi)
Fungi Found In The French River Area
website: ontario wildflowers and fungi
Book: Mushrooms of Ontario and Eastern Canada, a Lone Pine Guide by Gearoge Barron
Wildflowers of the French River
Water Plants on the French River
Trees and Bushes of the French River